Printing and Graphic Dictionary

Printing and Graphic Dictionary

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Everything you need to know about the printing and graphic industry.

Term Description
ABS Plastic ABS is a low cost plastic that is easy to machine and fabricate. ABS is an ideal material for structural applications when impact resistance, strength, and stiffness are required. It is widely used for Safety Signage.
Acetate A transparent sheet placed over originals or artwork, allowing the designer to write instructions and/or indicate a second colour for placement.
Acid-free Paper Papermade from pulp containing little or no acid so it resists deterioration from age. Also called alkaline paper, archival paper, neutral pH paper, permanent paper and thesis paper.
Acid Resist An acid-proof protective coating applied to metal plates prior to etching.
Additive Color Color produced by light falling onto a surface, as compared to subtractive color. The additive primary colors are red, green and blue.
Against the Grain At right angles to the grain direction of the paper being used, as compared to with the grain. Also called across the grain and cross grain. See also Grain Direction.
Airbrush Pen-shaped tool that sprays a fine mist of ink or paint to retouch photos and create continuous-tone illustrations.
Alteration Any change made by the customer after copy or artwork has been given to the service bureau, separator or printer. The change could be in copy, specifications or both. Also called AA, author alteration and customer alteration.
Anodized Plate An offset printing plate having a treated surface in order to reduce wear for extended use.
Anti-offset Powder Fine powder lightly sprayed over the printed surface of coated paper as sheets leave a press. Also called dust, offset powder, powder and spray powder.
Antique Paper Roughest finish offered on offset paper.
Aqueous Coating Coating in a water base and applied like ink by a printing press to protect and enhance the printing underneath.
Artwork All original copy, including type, photos and illustrations, intended for printing. Also called art.
Author’s Alterations (AA’s) At the proofing stage, changes that the client requests to be made concerning original art provided. AA’s are considered an additional cost to the client usually.
Back Up (1) To print on the second side of a sheet already printed on one side. (2) To adjust an image on one side of a sheet so that it aligns back-to-back with an image on the other side.
Base Art Copy pasted up on the mounting board of a mechanical, as compared to overlay art. Also called base mechanical.
Base Negative Negative made by photographing base art.
Basic Size The standard size of sheets of paper used to calculate basis weight in the United States and Canada.
Basis Weight In the United States and Canada, the weight, in pounds, of a ream (500 sheets) of paper cut to the basic size. Also called ream weight and substance weight (sub weight). In countries using ISO paper sizes, the weight, in grams, of one square meter of paper. Also called grammage and ream weight.
Bind Usually in the book arena, but not exclusively, the joining of leafs or signatures together with either wire, glue or other means.
Bindery Usually a department within a printing company responsible for collating, folding and trimming various printing projects.
Blank Category of paperboard ranging in thickness from 15 to 48 points.
Blanket Rubber-coated pad, mounted on a cylinder of an offset press, that receives the inked image from the plate and transfers it to the surface to be printed.
Bleed A printed image that extends beyond one or more of the finished page margins and is later trimmed so that the image “bleeds” off the edge of the sheet.
Blind Folio A page number not printed on the page. (In the book arena, a blank page traditionally does not print a page number.)
Blind Image Image debossed, embossed or stamped, but not printed with ink or foil.
Blocking Sticking together of printed sheets causing damage when the surfaces are separated.
Blow-Up An enlargement, usually used with raphic images or photographs.
Blueline Prepress photographic proof made from stripped negatives where all colors show as blue images on white paper. Because ‘blueline’ is a generic term for proofs made from a variety of materials having identical purposes and similar appearances, it may also be called a blackprint, blue, blueprint, brownline, brownprint, diazo, dyeline, ozalid, position proof, silverprint, Dylux and VanDyke.
Blurb A description or commentary of an author or book content positioned on the book jacket.
Board Paper General term for paper over 110# index, 80# cover or 200 gsm that is commonly used for products such as file folders, displays and post cards. Also called paperboard.
Body The main text of work not including the headlines.
Boiler Plate Blocks of repetitive type used and copied over and over again.
Bond paper Category of paper commonly used for writing, printing and photocopying. Also called business paper, communication paper, correspondence paper and writing paper.
Book Block Folded signatures gathered, sewn and trimmed, but not yet covered.
Book Paper Category of paper suitable for books, magazines, catalogs, advertising and general printing needs. Book paper is divided into uncoated paper (also called offset paper), coated paper (also called art paper, enamel paper, gloss paper and slick paper) and text paper.
Border The decorative design or rule surrounding matter on a page.
Bounce (1) a repeating registration problem in the printing stage of production. (2) Customer unhappy with the results of a printing project and refuses to accept the project.
Bristol Paper General term referring to paper 6 points or thicker with basis weight between 90# and 200# (200-500 gsm). Used for products such as index cards, file folders and displays.
Broadside The term used to indicate work printed on one of a large sheet of paper.
Bromide A photographic print created on bromide paper.
Broken Carton Carton of paper from which some of the sheets have been sold. Also called less carton.
Bronzing The effect produced by dusting wet ink after printing and using a metallic powder.
Build a Color To overlap two or more screen tints to create a new color. Such an overlap is called a build, color build, stacked screen build or tint build.
Bulk Thickness of paper relative to its basic weight.
Bullet A dot or similar marking to emphasize text.
Burst Perfect Bind To bind by forcing glue into notches along the spines of gathered signatures before affixing a paper cover. Also called burst bind, notch bind and slotted bind.
Butt Register Register where ink colors meet precisely without overlapping or allowing space between, as compared to lap register. Also called butt fit and kiss register.
Buy Out To subcontract for a service that is closely related to the business of the organization. Also called farm out. Work that is bought out or farmed out is sometimes called outwork or referred to as being out of house.
Catalog Paper Coated paper rated #4 or #5 with basis weight from 50 to 75 gsm, commonly used for catalogs and magazines.
Chromadek Signs Chromadek is an epoxy coated, highly durable galvanized steel sheet used for interior and exterior signage applications.
CMYK Abbreviation for cyan, magenta, yellow and key (black), the four process colors.
Collate To organize printed matter in a specific order as requested.
Color Balance Refers to amounts of process colors that simulate the colors of the original scene or photograph.
Color Correct To adjust the relationship among the process colors to achieve desirable colors.
Color Sequence Order in which inks are printed. Also called laydown sequence and rotation.
Color Shift Change in image color resulting from changes in register, ink densities or dot gain during four-color process printing.
Commercial Printer Printer producing a wide range of products such as announcements, brochures, posters, booklets, stationery, business forms, books and magazines. Also called job printer because each job is different.
Conspicuity Tape Highly reflective tape, used especially as a safety enhancement to make an object more noticeable. Also available as Chevron Stripes.
Contrast The degree of tones in an image ranging from highlight to shadow.
Cover Thick paper that protects a publication and advertises its title. Parts of covers are often described as follows: Cover 1=outside front; Cover 2=inside front; Cover 3=inside back, Cover 4=outside back.
Coverage Extent to which ink covers the surface of a substrate. Ink coverage is usually expressed as light, medium or heavy.
Crop Marks Lines near the edges of an image indicating portions to be reproduced. Also called cut marks and tic marks.
Cure To dry inks, varnishes or other coatings after printing to ensure good adhesion and prevent setoff.
Cut Sizes Paper sizes used with office machines and small presses.
Cutting Machine A machine that cuts stacks of paper to desired sizes. Also known as a Guillotine.
Cutting Die Usually a custom ordered item to trim specific and unusual sized printing projects.
Cyan One of the four process colors. Also known as process blue.
Data Compression Technique of reducing the amount of storage required to hold a digital file to reduce the disk space the file requires and allow it to be processed or transmitted more quickly.
Desktop Publishing Technique of using a personal computer to design images and pages, and assemble type and graphics, then using a laser printer or imagesetter to output the assembled pages onto paper, film or printing plate. Abbreviated DTP.
Die Device for cutting, scoring, stamping, embossing or debossing.
Die Cut To cut irregular shapes in paper or paperboard using a die.
Digital Printing Digital printing refers to methods of printing from a digital based image directly to a variety of media (e.g. Vinyl). It usually refers to professional printing where small run jobs from desktop publishing and other digital sources are printed using large format and/or high volume laser or inkjet printers.
Dots-per-inch (DPI) Measure of resolution of input devices such as scanners, display devices such as monitors, and output devices such as laser printers, imagesetters and monitors.
Dull Finish Flat (not glossy) finish on coated paper; slightly smoother than matte. Also called suede finish, velour finish and velvet finish.
Dummy Simulation of the final product. Also called mockup.
Emboss To press an image into paper so it lies above the surface. Also called cameo and tool.
Emulsion Casting of light-sensitive chemicals on papers, films, printing plates and stencils.
Encapsulated PostScript file (.EPS) Computer file containing both images and PostScript commands.
Engraving Printing method using a plate, also called a die, with an image cut into its surface.
Estimate Price that states what a job will probably cost. Also called bid, quotation and tender.
Etch To use chemicals to carve an image into metal, glass or film.
Fast Color Inks Inks with colors that retain their density and resist fading as the product is used and washed.
Feeding Unit Component of a printing press that moves paper into the register unit.
Fifth Color Ink color used in addition to the four needed by four-color process.
File Formats A specification for the structure with which a computer data file is saved and stored, often requiring certain programs or computers to reopen and/or edit the information within.
Film Laminate Thin sheet of plastic bonded to a printed product for protection or increased gloss.
Fine Papers Papers made specifically for writing or commercial printing, as compared to coarse papers and industrial papers. Also called cultural papers and graphic papers.
Finish (1) Surface characteristics of paper. (2) General term for trimming, folding, binding and all other post press operations.
Finished Size Size of product after production is completed, as compared to flat size. Also called trimmed size.
Fit Refers to ability of film to be registered during stripping and assembly. Good fit means that all images register to other film for the same job.
Fixed Costs Costs that remain the same regardless of how many pieces are printed.
Flat Color (1) Any color created by printing only one ink, as compared to a color created by printing four-color process. Also called block color and spot color. (2) color that seems weak or lifeless.
Flat Size Size of product after printing and trimming, but before folding, as compared to finished size.
Flexography Method of printing on a web press using rubber or plastic plates with raised images. Also called aniline printing because flexographic inks originally used aniline dyes. Abbreviated flexo.
Foil Emboss To foil stamp and emboss an image. Also called heat stamp.
Foil Stamp Method of printing that releases foil from its backing when stamped with the heated die. Also called block print, hot foil stamp and stamp.
Format Size, style, shape, layout or organization of a layout or printed product.
Form Roller(s) Roller(s) that come in contact with the printing plate, bringing it ink or water.
Fountain Solution Mixture of water and chemicals that dampens a printing plate to prevent ink from adhering to the nonimage area. Also called dampener solution.
Four-color Process Printing Technique of printing that uses black, magenta, cyan and yellow to simulate full-color images. Also called color process printing, full color printing and process printing.
French Fold A printed sheet, printed one side only, folded with two right angle folds to form a four page uncut section.
Gate Fold A sheet that folds where both sides fold toward the gutter in overlapping layers.
Gilding Mostly in the book arena, gold leafing the edges of a book.
Gloss Consider the light reflecting on various objects in the printing industry (e.g., paper, ink, laminates, UV coating, varnish).
Gloss Ink Ink used and printed on coated stock (mostly litho and letterpress) such as the ink will dry without penetration.
Grade General term used to distinguish between or among printing papers, but whose specific meaning depends on context. Grade can refer to the category, class, rating, finish or brand of paper.
Grain Direction Predominant direction in which fibers in paper become aligned during manufacturing. Also called machine direction.
Grammage Basis weight of paper in grams per square meter (gsm).
Graphic Arts The crafts, industries and professions related to designing and printing on paper and other substrates.
Graphic Design Arrangement of type and visual elements along with specifications for paper, ink colors and printing processes that, when combined, convey a visual message.
Graphics Visual elements that supplement type to make printed messages more clear or interesting.
Gray Scale Strip of gray values ranging from white to black. Used by process camera and scanner operators to calibrate exposure times for film and plates. Also called step wedge.
GSM The unit of measurement for paper weight (grams per square meter).
Gutter In the book arena, the inside margins toward the back or the binding edges.
Guillotine Cutter An automatic or manual device used to cut and trim paper and other substrates to a specific size.
Hairline (Rule) Subjective term referring to very small space, thin line or close register. The meaning depends on who is using the term and in what circumstances.
Halo Effect Faint shadow sometimes surrounding halftone dots printed. Also called halation. The halo itself is also called a fringe.
Head(er) At the top of a page, the margin.
Highlights Lightest portions of a photograph or halftone, as compared to midtones and shadows.
HLS Abbreviation for hue, lightness, saturation, one of the color-control options often found in software, for design and page assembly. Also called HVS.
Hot Spot Printing defect caused when a piece of dirt or an air bubble caused incomplete draw-down during contact platemaking, leaving an area of weak ink coverage or visible dot gain.
Hue A specific color such as yellow or green.
Image Area The actual area on the printed matter that is not restricted to ink coverage,
Impression (1) Referring to an ink color, one impression equals one press sheet passing once through a printing unit. (2) Referring to speed of a press, one impression equals one press sheet passing once through the press.
Impression Cylinder Cylinder, on a press, that pushes paper against the plate or blanket, thus forming the image. Also called impression roller.
Ink Balance Relationship of the densities and dot gains of process inks to each other and to a standard density of neutral gray.
Ink Fountain Reservoir, on a printing press, that holds ink.
Ink Holdout Characteristic of paper that prevents it from absorbing ink, thus allowing ink to dry on the surface of the paper. Also called holdout.
Ink Jet Printing Method of printing by spraying droplets of ink through computer-controlled nozzles. Also called jet printing.
Inserts Within a publication, an additional item positioned into the publication loose (not bound in).
Interleaves Printed pages loosely inserted in a publication.
ISBN A number assigned to a published work and usually found either on the title page or the back of the title page. Considered an International Standard Book Number.
Job Number A number assigned to a specific printing project in a printing company for use in tracking and historical record keeping.
Job Ticket Form used by service bureaus, separators and printers to specify production schedule of a job and the materials it needs. Also called docket, production order and work order.
K Abbreviation for black in four-color process printing. Hence the ‘K’ in CMYK.
Key Negative or Plate Negative or plate that prints the most detail, thus whose image guides the register of images from other plates. Also called key printer.
Kiss Die Cut To die cut the top layer, but not the backing layer, of self-adhesive paper. Also called face cut or piggy back label.
Laser Bond Bond paper made especially smooth and dry to run well through laser printers.
Laminate A thin transparent plastic sheet (coating) applied to usually a thick stock (covers, post cards, etc.) providing protection against liquid and heavy use, and usually accents existing color, providing a glossy (or lens) effect.
Landscape An art design in which the width is greater than the height. (Opposite of Portrait.)
Lay Edge The edge of a sheet of paper feeding into a press.
Layout A sample of the original providing (showing) position of printed work (direction, instructions) needed and desired.
Leading Amount of space between lines of type.
Leaf One sheet of paper in a publication. Each side of a leaf is one page.
Letter fold Two folds creating three panels that allow a sheet of letterhead to fit a business envelope. Also called barrel fold and wrap around fold.
Letterpress Method of printing from raised surfaces, either metal type or plates whose surfaces have been etched away from image areas. Also called block printing.
Lithography Method of printing using plates whose image areas attract ink and whose nonimage areas repel ink. Nonimage areas may be coated with water to repel the oily ink or may have a surface, such as silicon, that repels ink.
Live Area Area on a mechanical within which images will print. Also called safe area.
Logo (Logotype) A company, partnership or corporate creation (design) that denotes a unique entity. A possible combination of letters and art work to create a “sole” entity symbol of that specific unit.
Loupe Lens built into a small stand. Used to inspect copy, film, proofs, plates and printing. Also called glass and linen tester.
Machine Glazed (MG) Paper holding a high-gloss finish only on one side.
Magenta One of the four process colors.
Makeready (1) All activities required to prepare a press or other machine to function for a specific printing or bindery job, as compared to production run. Also called setup. (2) Paper used in the makeready process at any stage in production. Makeready paper is part of waste or spoilage.
Manuscript (MS) An author’s original form of work (hand written, typed or on disk) submitted for publication.
Margin Imprinted space around the edge of the printed material.
Mark-Up Instructions written usually on a “dummy.”
Master Paper or plastic plate used on a duplicating press.
Match Print A form of a four-color-process proofing system.
Matte Finish Flat (not glossy) finish on photographic paper or coated printing paper.
Metallic Ink Ink containing powdered metal or pigments that simulate metal.
Metallic Paper Paper coated with a thin film of plastic or pigment whose color and gloss simulate metal.
Mock Up A reproduction of the original printed matter and possibly containing instructions or direction.
Multicolor Printing Printing in more than one ink color (but not four-color process). Also called polychrome printing.
Nonimpact Printing Printing using lasers, ions, ink jets or heat to transfer images to paper.
Novelty Printing Printing on products such as coasters, pencils, balloons, golf balls and ashtrays, known as advertising specialties or premiums.
Offset Printing Printing technique that transfers ink from a plate to a blanket to paper instead of directly from plate to paper.
Opacity (1) Characteristic of paper or other substrate that prevents printing on one side from showing through the other side. (2) Characteristic of ink that prevents the substrate from showing through.
Opaque (1) Not transparent. (2) To cover flaws in negative with tape or opaquing paint. Also called block out and spot.
Overlay Proof Color proof consisting of polyester sheets laid on top of each other with their image in register, as compared to integral proof. Each sheet represents the image to be printed in one color. Also called celluloid proof and layered proof.
Overprint To print one image over a previously printed image, such as printing type over a screen tint. Also called surprint.
Over Run Additional printed matter beyond order. Overage policy varies in the printing industry. Advance questions avoid blind knowledge.
Page One side of a leaf in a publication.
Page Count Total number of pages that a publication has.
Page Proof Proof of type and graphics as they will look on the finished page complete with elements such as headings, rules and folios.
Painted Sheet Sheet printed with ink edge to edge, as compared to spot color. The painted sheet refers to the final product, not the press sheet, and means that 100 percent coverage results from bleeds off all four sides.
Panel One page of a brochure, such as one panel of a rack brochure. One panel is on one side of the paper. A letter-folded sheet has six panels.
Paper Sizes A0: 841mm wide x 1189mm high
A1: 594mm wide x 841mm high
A2: 420mm wide x 594mm high
A3: 297mm wide x 420mm high
A4: 210mm wide x 297mm high
A5: 148mm wide x 210mm high
Parallel Fold Method of folding. Two parallel folds to a sheet will produce 6 panels.
Perfect Bind To bind sheets that have been ground at the spine and are held to the cover by glue. Also called adhesive bind, cut-back bind, glue bind, paper bind, patent bind, perfecting bind, soft bind and soft cover. See also Burst Perfect Bind.
Perfecting Press Press capable of printing both sides of the paper during a single pass. Also called duplex press and perfector.
Perforating Taking place on a press or a binder machine, creating a line of small dotted wholes for the purpose of tearing-off a part of a printed matter (usually straight lines, vertical or horizontal).
Pickup Art Artwork, used in a previous job, to be incorporated in a current job.
Pin Register Technique of registering separations, flats and printing plates by using small holes, all of equal diameter, at the edges of both flats and plates.
Pixel Short for picture element, a dot made by a computer, scanner or other digital device. Also called px.
Plate Piece of paper, metal, plastic or rubber carrying an image to be reproduced using a printing press.
Plate-ready Film Stripped negatives or positives fully prepared for platemaking.
Pleasing Color Color that the customer considers satisfactory even though it may not precisely match original samples, scenes or objects.
PMS Obsolete reference to Pantone Matching System. The correct trade name of the colors in the Pantone Matching System is Pantone colors.
Point (1) Regarding paper, a unit of thickness equating 1/1000 inch. (2) Regarding type, a unit of measure equaling 1/12 pica and .013875 inch (.351mm).
Portrait An art design in which the height is greater than the width. (Opposite of Landscape.)
Prepress Camera work, color separations, stripping, platemaking and other prepress functions performed by the printer, separator or a service bureau prior to printing. Also called preparation.
Prepress Proof Any color proof made using ink jet, toner, dyes or overlays, as compared to a press proof printed using ink. Also called dry proof and off-press proof.
Press Check Event at which makeready sheets from the press are examined before authorizing full production to begin.
Press Proof Proof made on press using the plates, ink and paper specified for the job. Also called strike off and trial proof.
Press Time (1) Amount of time that one printing job spends on press, including time required for makeready. (2) Time of day at which a printing job goes on press.
Printing Any process that transfers to paper or another substrate an image from an original such as a film negative or positive, electronic memory, stencil, die or plate.
Printing Plate Surface carrying an image to be printed. Quick printing uses paper or plastic plates; letterpress, engraving and commercial lithography use metal plates; flexography uses rubber or soft plastic plates. Gravure printing uses a cylinder. The screen printing is also called a plate.
Printing Unit Assembly of fountain, rollers and cylinders that will print one ink color. Also called color station, deck, ink station, printer, station and tower.
Process Color (Inks) The colors used for four-color process printing: yellow, magenta, cyan and black.
Production Run Press run intended to manufacture products as specified.
Proof Test sheet made to reveal errors or flaws, predict results on press and record how a printing job is intended to appear when finished.
Proofreader Marks Standard symbols and abbreviations used to mark up manuscripts and proofs. Also called correction marks.
Publishing Paper Paper made in weights, colors and surfaces suited to books, magazines, catalogs and free-standing inserts.
Quality Subjective term relating to expectations by the customer, printer and other professionals associated with a printing job and whether the job meets those expectations.
Quotation Price offered by a printer to produce a specific job.
Raster Image Processor Device that translates page description commands into bitmapped information for an output device such as a laser printer or imagesetter.
Ream 500 sheets of paper.
Recycled Paper New paper made entirely or in part from old paper.
Register Marks Cross-hair lines on mechanicals and film that help keep flats, plates, and printing in register. Also called crossmarks and position marks.
Relief Printing Printing method whose image carriers are surfaces with two levels having inked areas higher than noninked areas. Relief printing includes block printing, flexography and letter press.
Reprographics General term for xerography, diazo and other methods of copying used by designers, engineers, architects or for general office use.
Resolution Sharpness of an image on film, paper, computer screen, disc, tape or other medium.
RGB Abbreviation for red, green, blue, the additive color primaries. Line used as a graphic element to separate or organize copy.
Saddle Stitch To bind by stapling sheets together where they fold at the spine, as compared to side stitch. Also called pamphlet stitch, saddle wire and stitch bind.
Scale To identify the percent by which photographs or art should be enlarged or reduced to achieve, the correct size for printing.
Scanner Electronic device used to scan an image.
Score To compress paper along a straight line so it folds more easily and accurately. Also called crease.
Screen Angles Angles at which screens intersect with the horizontal line of the press sheet. The common screen angles for separations are black 45 degree, magenta 75 degree, yellow 90 degree and cyan 105 degree.
Screen Printing Method of printing by using a squeegee to force ink through an assembly of mesh fabric and a stencil.
Shade Hue made darker by the addition of black, as compared to tint.
Shadows Darkest areas of a photograph or illustration, as compared to midtones and high-lights.
Sheetfed Press Press that prints sheets of paper, as compared to a web press.
Side stitch To bind by stapling through sheets along, one edge, as compared to saddle stitch. Also called cleat stitch and side wire.
Solid Any area of the sheet receiving 100 percent ink coverage, as compared to a screen tint.
Specially Printer Printer whose equipment, supplies, work flow and marketing is targeted to a particular category of products.
Specifications Complete and precise written description of features of a printing job such as type size and leading, paper grade and quantity, printing or binding method. Abbreviated specs.
Spine Back or binding edge of a publication
Spiral Bind To bind using a spiral of continuous wire or plastic looped through holes. Also called coil bind.
Spoilage Paper that, due to mistakes or accidents, must be thrown away instead of delivered printed to the customer, as compared to waste.
Spot Color or Varnish One ink or varnish applied to portions of a sheet, as compared to flood or painted sheet.
Spread (1) Two pages that face each other and are designed as one visual or production unit. (2) Technique of slightly enlarging the size of an image to accomplish a hairline trap with another image. Also called fatty.
Stocking Paper Popular sizes, weights and colors of papers available for prompt delivery from a merchant’s warehouse.
Substrate Any surface or material on which printing is done.
Subtractive Primary Color Yellow, magenta and cyan. In the graphic arts, these are known as process colors because, along with black, they are the inks colors used in color-process printing.
Template Concerning a printing project’s basic details in regard to its dimensions. A standard layout.
Thermal Transfer See our article on Thermal Transfer Printing.
Thumbnails Initial ideas jotted on virtually anything in regard to initial concept of a future project.
Tint Screening or adding white to a solid color for results of lightening that specific color.
Tone Compression Reduction in the tonal range from original scene to printed reproduction.
Trap To print one ink over another or to print a coating, such as varnish, over an ink. The first liquid traps the second liquid. See also Dry Traps and Wet Traps.
Trim Size The size of the printed material in its finished stage (e.g., the finished trim size is 5 12 x 8 12).
Universal Copyright Convention (UCC) A system to protect unique work from reproducing without knowledge from the originator. To qualify, one must register their work and publish a (c) indicating registration.
Unsharp Masking Technique of adjusting dot size to make a halftone or separation appear sharper (in better focus) than the original photo or the first proof. Also called edge enhancement and peaking.
UV Coating Liquid applied to a printed sheet, then bonded and cured with ultraviolet light.
Value The shade (darkness) or tint (lightness) of a color. Also called brightness, lightness, shade and tone.
Varnish Liquid applied as a coating for protection and appearance.
Viewing Booth Small area or room that is set up for proper viewing of transparencies, color separations or press sheets. Also called color booth. See also Standard Viewing Conditions.
Vignette Decorative design or illustration fade to white.
Virgin Paper Paper made exclusively of pulp from trees or cotton, as compared to recycled paper.
Wash Up To clean ink and fountain solutions from rollers, fountains, screens, and other press components.
Waste Unusable paper or paper damage during normal makeready, printing or binding operations, as compared to spoilage.
Watermark Translucent logo in paper created during manufacturing by slight embossing from a dandy roll while paper is still approximately 90 percent water.
Web Press Press that prints from rolls of paper, usually cutting it into sheets after printing. Also called reel-fed press. Web presses come in many sizes, the most common being mini, half, three quarter (also called 8-pages) and full (also called 16-pages).
Wet Trap To print ink or varnish over wet ink, as compared to dry trap. Parallel to the grain direction of the paper being used, as compared to against the grain. See also Grain Direction.

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